Soil conservation scientists are concerned about reducing soil erosion, and after working on several projects, they have found that constructing retaining walls can be a great way to minimize soil loss from a land. Soil conservation is necessary for homeowners as well as agriculturists because when water washes away the topsoil, the land becomes infertile and losses its stability. Building a retaining wall for landscapes can be an easy method if you have sufficient information about the land slope, soil properties, cohesiveness of the soil particles, bearing capacity, and so on. Here we will discuss about the retaining wall landscape.
After gathering all the information, when it is time to design a retaining wall, things become messy, and we are here to help our readers to make a design.
Designing Procedure of Retaining Wall Landscapes
1. Select the types and structures
There are many categories of retaining walls, including block masonry, gravity, leaning, cantilever, counterfort, and so on. Each of these mentioned types is applicable for different uses and sites, such as block masonry is applicable for the lighter soil pressure where the soil behind the retaining wall is quite dense, and these walls are comparatively weak. Based on the geological and topographical conditions of the landscape, you have to decide which one should be chosen.
2. Foundation types
There are two classes of foundations in this case – spread foundations and pile foundations. Between these two, spread foundations are preferred because of the filling materials at the back and the bearing stratum. In some cases, when the surface layer becomes softer, it is suggested to use the spread foundation with the improvement or replacement of the softer layer. Use the pile foundations when the spread foundations seem too difficult to set up.
3. Design conditions determination
The shear strength of the soils is usually determined by the triaxial compression or unconfined compression process. In this step, you have to determine a few parameters for establishing the design. Along with the shear strength, there is one more thing that needs to be calculated, which can be determined from the laboratory, and it is the unit weight of soil. Dense soil has more unit weight (kN/m3). In addition, while analyzing the bearing capacity, it can be determined by introducing an in-situ test, which is also known as the standard penetration test by the engineers.
4. Earthquake effects
In many countries, where there is a frequent occurrence of the earthquake, engineers need to consider it before constructing any structures. If you want to build a wall greater than 8 meters in height, you must have to consider an earthquake as a factor that can ruin the structure.
5. Combination of the pressures
Usually, there are five loads acting on the wall, including – deadweight, earth/soil pressure, surcharge, buoyancy, water pressure, and earthquake. However, while designing the structure, three major loads are taken into considerations – soil pressure, deadweight, and surcharge.
Many people often ask about the earthquake. Don’t worry because the pressure developed from the seismic force can be dismissed by slightly increasing the net value.
These are the designing process to construct a retaining wall for the landscape. You can study more about each of these steps to build the structure more accurately.